Big 5 Mass Extinctions (1/5)

Ordovician/Silurian (~440 Ma ago)

  • Regression up to 80 m
  • Iapetus ocean closed (caledonian orogen was formed)
  • about 30% of species got extinct

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Big 5 Mass Extinctions (2/5)

Upper Devonian, Kellwasser Event (~360 Ma)

  • ~ 40% of species died
  • first forests were formed
  • new types of reefs are made of stromatopores
  • causes: global anoxic conditions, regression, plate tectonics
  • Variscan Orogen was formed, Rheiic Ocean closed

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Big 5 Mass Extinctions (3/5)

Permian / Triassic (~255 Ma)

  • ~70% of species died
  • Flood Basalts, black schists
  • massive drop in O2
  • Glaciation
  • Pangaea was finally formed
  • the Variscan Orogen ended with the formation of the Ural mountains

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Big 5 Mass Extinctions (4/5)

Triassic/Jurassic Boundary (200 Ma)

  • about 50% of taxa died
  • depletion of brachiopoda, gastropoda and bivalve families
  • depletion of archosaurs, except crocodiles
  • extinction of conodonts as well as plenty of therapsides

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Big 5 Mass Extinctions (5/5)

Cretaceous  /  Palaeocene (65 Ma)
(formerly Cretaceous/Tertiary, also known as K/T-Boundary)

  • dinosaurs extinct
  • meteorite
  • flute basalts
  • continents drift apart

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